In addition to the holds being clean, cargo battens (horizontal battens placed at regular intervals up to the vessel frames in the holds – designed to keep the bagged cargo away from the vessel’s sides thus reducing the risk of condensation damage and tearing on the frames) have to be in place. All bagged cargo is subject to problems caused from the bags being torn during loading/discharging operations. Not only does the vessel have to be fully cargo batten fitted but also ventilation channels have to be built into the stow of the cargo. Bagged Ammonium Nitrate is subject to spontaneous combustion, especially if the Nitrogen content of the cargo is above 27%. Bagged Fishmeal like bulk fishmeal is subject to spontaneous combustion. Unit Loads cargoes will all have to be carefully loaded and lashed to prevent movement during the voyage. Steel the weight of each piece will have to be watched to ensure that the maximum loadings permissible on the vessel’s tank tops are not exceeded. This problem particularly applies when steel coils are being loaded. Of course the major problem with steel cargoes is that unprotected steel quickly becomes rusty and that rust becomes a fertile cause of disputes and cargo claims, about which more later in this lesson. Logs can be loaded on deck. The vessel will have to erect stanchions on deck and provide chains. Both these items will keep the deck cargo from shifting during the voyage. Care will also have to be taken when loading logs floated out to the ship and loaded direct from the water as opposed to being loaded from a jetty or wharf. These “floaters” will be loaded wet and drying out the hold can be difficult. Logs can also, because of their weight and size, cause impact damage to the vessel if not loaded/discharged with very great care. Creosoted Timber (e.g. railway sleepers [ties] and telegraph poles) can leave a smell in the holds which is very persistent and very difficult to get rid of and likely to taint future cargoes.