Each Club sets out details of the conditions of entry and risks covered in the form of a Rule Book. Although Club rules will vary in detail, they generally cover the same risks, and indeed the IGA Club rule wordings have to fall in line with the requirements of the pool agreement for the purpose of the re-insurance contract. The principal risks covered by the P & I Clubs are summarised below; the list is not exhaustive and students can benefit from a careful study of at least one of the Rule Books for a full understanding: Crew: Illness, injury or death of crew members, including costs associated with replacing crew members and deviation to obtain medical assistance. Passengers and Others: Illness, injury or death of passengers and other persons connected with the ship such as stevedores. Passengers’ baggage is also covered. In these days of exorbitant compensation awards following marine accidents, particularly by the United States Courts, these first two sections of the cover are clearly of great importance. Costs associated with stowaways can also be covered. Collisions: Collision liabilities such as the one fourth Third Party liability arising out of the London ITC Hull Policy Clauses. In addition to collision claims the Clubs also provide cover for claims of non contact damage, such as wash damage, to other ships. Fixed and Floating Objects: Liabilities incurred in respect of damage done to fixed and floating objects (FFO) such as buoys, jetties, pipelines, etc. Cover is also offered in respect of removal of wreckage following a marine casualty. Pollution: Subject to an upper limit, costs and liabilities arising out of environmental pollution are recoverable from the Club. This topic is covered in greater detail in a later section of this lesson. Cargo: Liabilities in respect of cargo loss, shortage or damage provided such cargo is carried under a bill of lading containing approved conditions. The Clubs also lay down specific and detailed provisions relating to cargo liabilities and to the delivery of cargo against proper documentation. Again the area of cargo liabilities is expanded upon in a later section.