Israel: Because of likely black-listing by Arab nations for future trading. As a result it is common practice for time charterers and for those engaged in voyage business involving Arab nations, to negotiate and to insert in charterparties an “Arab boycott clause”, under which the ship owner confirms that his vessel is not boycotted (blacklisted) by Arab nations as a result of previous visits to Israel. Libya: Under Libyan law, all documents appertaining to ships and or cargoes must be translated into Arabic. Thus trading with Libya involves heavy extra costs for translations. Additionally, Libyan customs are likely to search vessels for any sign of goods or equipment involving nations (e.g. Israel) of which they disapprove and, if such are discovered, impose heavy fines against the vessel. Consequently, Libya is not a popular calling place. (A single carton of Israeli fruit juice in the galley has been known to cause trouble) Cyprus ports under Turkish control: Greek flag ships have been prohibited by their Government from trading to those ports since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus some years ago. Similarly, the Greek Government is not willing to permit other nations’ vessels to call at Greek ports after trading to Turkish-controlled Cyprus. As a direct consequence, Greek-flag ships are not always welcome to trade to Turkey itself and, although little official ruling is declared over this by the Turkish Government, it will be found that some Turkish-bound cargoes are not fixable in Greek tonnage. Cuba: The USA has relaxed its ban on vessels trading to Cuba, although Cuba is still mentioned in some charterparties as an exclusion “for vessels that have traded to Cuba since 1962….”. The restriction is gradually being lifted since it is a relic of a bygone age, but can still cause occasional problems. North Korea: Despite the general retreat from the more extreme forms of socialism by the so-called ‘soviet bloc’, North Korea continues to adhere to its Marxist/Leninists policies. There are few signs remaining of countries actually boycotting that country but some owners are still reluctant to have their ships ordered there.