Expellers

The residue husks (or hulls) remaining after the oils have been extracted are termed ‘expellers,’ which since these remain rich in nutrient, are valued for such as cattlefodder or fertiliser. Expellers may be shipped as they are, but are often ‘pressed’ into cakes, termed
 oilcake or seedcake, and shipped in bulk or in bags. These cakes vary considerably in their precise carriage requirements, depending on type, origin, and oil-extraction process, but all are extensively covered in the IMO Dangerous Goods Code and in associated publications, being classified as ‘inflammable solids’. All require ageing before shipment, are liable to lose weight on passage as oil content dries out, to overheat, perhaps to spontaneously combust, to become infested by insects, to taint from other goods, and to emit strong odor.