Grain Ocean Transport

Whether transported in bulk or in bags, grains are liable to heat and/or sweat, especially if damp, when they may germinate or rot, therefore requiring careful pre-loading inspection, carriage and ventilation. Because of these risks, grains should not be loaded or discharged if unprotected in inclement weather. Furthermore, grains in bulk have angles of repose of less than the critical 35 degrees  and consequently are prone to surface movement at sea. Seeds are specially vulnerable. Seaborne transportation of grain is thus subject to strict scrutiny. Various regulations for the safe carriage of grain and its derivatives at sea resulted from the Safety of Life at Sea International Conferences of 1960 and 1974, known as SOLAS 1960, and 1974 which laid down detailed rules for its transportation in a variety of vessel types. Most of the grain exporting countries apply stringent regulations based on the findings of those Conferences. Owing to their construction, particular ships (eg: self-trimming bulk carriers) may be exempted from some of the provisions, and be issued with Grain Loading Plans incorporated into their Stability Booklets, governing the way they can carry certain grains, both as to quantity, position and stowage.