Perhaps the most surprising exception is 2(a) which covers acts negligence or default by those employed by the shipowner in the navigation or management of the ship.  This emphasises the point made earlier that provided the shipowner provides officers and crew of correct numbers and properly qualified, if their acts or omissions cause damage to the cargo, this shipowner is not liable. Article IV Rule 3 Gives the shipper some degree of similar protection for their errors and omissions. Article IV Rule 4 This is the deviation clause which goes beyond the Common Law constraints and does allow deviation to save property as well as life. Article IV Rule 5 Contains the all-important financial limitations of liability and finding a way of expressing monetary units in a world of many different currencies all fluctuating, sometime wildly, exercised the minds of the compilers of the Rules.  In the old Hague Rules they tried to tie it to gold, the Hague-Visby draughtsmen proposed a “Poincaré Franc” which was the subject of a complicated formula linked to gold.  Finally they settled on Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) a unit of account devised by the International Monetary Fund.  The rate of exchange of any currency can be established against SDRs, and it is often published in financial columns of the business press. The limitation amounts are 666,67 units of account per package or 2 units of account per kilo whichever is the highest. Problems have arisen as to what constitutes a “package” when a sealed full container load (FCL) is involved.  The carrier has no way of verifying how many separate items are in the container which is why care is taken to include the words “said to contain” when completing B/Ls for FCL containers. The strict interpretation of this rule means that if the FCL container states:- “One container containing carpets”. Then the container is considered to be the package and a total loss would the weight of the cargo of carpets calculated at two units of account per kilo.