Petroleum Coke, as its name implies, is a derivative of the petroleum industry. In its carriage requirements and industrial usages it is, however, akin to coals. Raw petroleum coke (petcoke for short), is a black solid residue from the petroleum refining process. It is liable to heat and to spontaneously combust, so similar precautions should be taken in its transportation as for soft coals with similar tendencies. As for coal, a danger signal is a temperature of around 50/55°C (120/130°F) and if the heat of the commodity exceeds this temperature, it should not be accepted for shipment. There are various types of petroleum coke, calcined or calcinated petcoke having been heat-treated to expel water and volatile substances. Some types (eg: raw green) leave oily stains in cargo holds that are difficult to clean off, whereas the oil content of others may be less than one percent, leaving holds easily washable following discharge. Although the cargo may be loaded in wetted condition owing to its stowage in the open in inclement weather, or after being sprayed with water during loading to prevent air-pollution by dust, there should be little danger of the cargo shifting at sea if loaded in a self-trimming bulkcarrier, and the angle of repose of petcoke should not normally be less than 33°. As for coal, petcoke, is usually carried from USA origins under an Amwelsh Charterparty, the Gencon perhaps being utilised for cargoes emanating from Europe.
- From US West Coast Petcoke Stowage Factor 42/48
- From US Gulf Petcoke Stowage Factor 48/50
- From Europe Petcoke Stowage Factor 50/60
- From US Gulf Calcined Petcoke Stowage Factor 54/56
- From US Gulf – US East Coast Fluid Petcoke Stowage Factor 32/41
Oil Shale: A raw material occasionally encountered as a bulk seaborne commodity, and from which crude petroleum oil can be extracted is oil shale – a clay or mud impregnated with crude mineral oil and which hardens over many years, eventually splitting into thin plates running parallel to the local stratification. Naturally, the oil content of the parent material will vary from area to area as will its stowage factor. Furthermore, it is possible that the properties of oil shale will be similar to those of raw petroleum coke, leaving oily stains in cargo compartments following discharge.
Peat: is a brown, fibrous turf formed by decayed vegetable matter, which is dug from the ground, dried, and used as a fuel and as a garden compost. An important export of Ireland, usually in bales stowing around 90 cubic feet per tonne, but sometimes shipped in bulk, eg: Poland to Holland.