Through Bill of Lading. – This document is similar in appearance (and function) to the conventional B/L except on the face it will have ‘boxes’ allowing for the name of a pre-carrier to be inserted together with the place of acceptance by the pre-carrier, then the usual port of loading and port of discharge will appear followed by the name of the on-carrier with space for showing the place of delivery by the on-carrier. It will be seen that such a B/L is suitable where the ocean carrier is remote from the place of origin and/or place of destination so that the cargo has to be “fed” to/from the loading/discharging port of the ocean carrier, usually by a coaster or short-sea vessel. A through B/L should not be confused with a Combined Transport B/L which will be considered shortly. The point to emphasise is that the ocean carrier acts as agent for the pre/on carrier(s). He undertakes to make the arrangements and charges a single through rate but his liability is only for the ocean voyage, claims arising through problems during pre/on carriage have to be made to those parties. These documents were essentially created to serve the container trade. The face of the B/L is similar to the Through B/L in having extra ‘boxes’ to accommodate place of receipt and place of delivery. The crucial difference between a Combined Transport B/L and a Through B/L is that under the Combined Transport B/L (CT-B/L), the carrier accepts liability for the entire carriage.