Reachable on Arrival: When the charter party provides that the ship is to proceed to a berth “reachable on arrival,” it is up to the charterers to provide a berth for the vessel on arrival in the port. “Reachable on arrival is a well-known phrase and means precisely what it says. If a berth cannot be reached on arrival the warranty is broken” (The Laura Prima, 1982), Where there is a reachable on arrival provision in a charter party and a further clause provides that “where delays are caused to the vessel getting into berth, after giving notice of readiness, for any reason over which the charterers have no control, such delay shall not count as used laytime,” this clause will only apply if the reachable on arrival provision is complied with. Demurrage: Demurrage refers to the damages payable by the charterers to the ship- owner for failing to complete the loading (or discharging) of the ship within the agreed laytime period. Demurrage is not payable when the charter party expressly provides that certain periods of time lost (e,g” by breakdown or inefficiency of the ship) shall not count for demurrage, However, the general rule is “once on demurrage, always on demurrage” (i.e., if a ship is on demurrage, no laytime exceptions such as Sundays and holidays can be deducted from the computation of demurrage), Dispatch: Dispatch is the opposite of demurrage and refers to money paid by the shipowner to the charterers as a reward for completing loading (or dis- charging) operations prior to the expiry of laytime. Dispatch is irnpor- tant in some particular trades such as bulk sugar, where time is of the essence for the shipowner to complete loading/discharging operations and embark on another journey, The rate at which dispatch is paid is usually half the demurrage rate and may be paid in respect of “all the time saved” (running time) or “all time saved” (not counting periods excepted from laytime).