It may also be necessary to secure some commodities with lashings. In these cases ‘pad-eyes‘ may need to be welded to tank-tops and/or hold sides, so as to provide safe anchorages for the lashing material. The cost and time of welding and removing these pad-eyes is usually for the account of the Charterer, with Charter Party clauses drafted accordingly, perhaps adding that, if not removed following discharge, the Shipowner is to be reimbursed by payment of a set rate, say US $10.00 per pad-eye left in place. Naturally, care must be taken with any welding work in the vicinity of oil bunker tanks located beneath tank-tops. Such a Charter Party clause may go on to list the lashing materials supplied by the loading Stevedores/Charterers, stipulating that the Shipowner is to ensure that his Officers take care of these and hand them over to Charterers’ representatives in good condition at the end of the voyage. Since the late 1990s, all vessels are obliged to carry a cargo securing manual which details what fittings are attached to the ship and their loading limits. Additional fittings can still be attached but their loading limits may have to be certified by a surveyor before they can be used. The manual must also include details of lashing materials such as wire ropes, twistlocks (for container ships) and shackles and turnbuckles used for fixing and tightening wire ropes. This equipment list should be updated regularly and thus provides a useful reference for charterers involved in disputes over damage to lashing materials.