Stowage is an integral part of the loading, and is therefore the owner’s responsibility unless there is a term in the charterparty transferring it to the charterer. Stowage includes arranging and securing the cargo in such a way as to prevent damage or deterioration to any of the cargo loaded. In addition, materials such as dunnage (wooden planks and timber used to keep bagged cargoes or cases away from the steel hull or to act as separation between different cargoes), lashing wires and ropes must be provided to achieve the safety of the cargo and ship. Where loading or discharging is to be carried out at more than one port, the vessel must be seaworthy and have a proper trim (draught of ship forward and aft to allow efficient use of the propeller and rudder) whilst steaming between the interim ports. Some current seaworthy trim clauses render the charterers liable for the costs of ensuring seaworthy trim.