There are many dry-cargo tramp trades – some international, some local. Because of the diversity of the background of those taking this course (where, for example local trades affecting those in the Eastern Mediterranean will not particularly affect or interest those involved in local trades around Japan and Korea and vice versa) the intention of the following pages is to concentrate on internationally important trades routes and commodities. This will be tackled in two stages. First from the aspect of a commodity (perhaps of most interest to a charterer or trader in that commodity), and secondly from the aspect of type/size of vessel (i.e. from the ship owner’s, ship operator’s viewpoint). You should set yourself the task of reading fixture and market reports that appear in shipping publications and, from these, you will learn of some of the major ports involved in the shipment and delivery of any particular commodity, as well as the speed of cargo handling at ports involved and the preferred size of vessel. The three major seaborne trade dry-cargo commodities (in terms of volume) are iron ore, coal and grains -in that order. You have learned about the ships that carry such cargoes earlier in this Course, as well as about the commodities themselves from “CARGOES”. It is now necessary to complete that data with consideration of the actual trades arranged around these three major commodities. Ore in its various forms comes mainly from developing nations, such as Brazil, Venezuela, West and South-east Africa and India, also from advanced nations such as Australia and Canada and, to a lesser extent, from Scandinavia. The receiving end of such voyages is almost always one of the major industrialised countries, such as in Europe, the United States of America, or Japan. However, raw, unrefined ores are frequently partly processed into commodities such as sinter, pig iron, pellets or concentrates, often at processing plants in developing nations, before being carried onwards in other ships to their eventual destinations.