Bulk Ferro Silicon Shipping

Bulk Ferro Silicon Shipping

Ferro Silicon is an extremely volatile compound which is exported in bulk from Iceland and Norway, often in numerous grades requiring careful separation. Particularly in the first few days after cargo handling and if in contact with water, ferro-silicon emits extremely toxic and inflammable gases.

Ferro Silicon is exported from Brazil, Venezuela, South Africa, Philippines, France and Slovenia – sometimes in drums – and imported in large quantities into Japan and the USA.

Extensive Rules are laid down for the safe transportation of ferro-silicon in bulk, it being stipulated that the silicon content of the product must amount either to less than 30% or to more than 70% of the mixture. Before loading Ferro Silicon should be stacked under cover but exposed to the air for at least 10 days and, during this period and that of its subsequent loading and transportation, should be adequately protected from water and humidity.

Prior to presentation of the cargo for loading, the shipper should supply a certificate attesting to the silicon content and confirming that proper ventilation procedures have been performed.

During carriage, cargo compartments should be well-ventilated with at least 5 air-changes per hour in each hold (at least 30 air changes in any pump room serving the bilge operations offloaded cargo compartments) with exhaust vents leading from the bottom of the stow and opening at a minimum of 2.5 metres above main deck level and well clear of accommodation.

Hatch covers should be battened down as gastight as is possible, with an adequate supply of suitable breathing equipment being carried on board.

Naturally, for the carriage of Ferro-Phosphorous and Ferro-Silicon Electrically Ventilated Ship Holds are preferred but any Shipowner contemplating the carriage of either of these products must be sure to exercise extreme caution and thoroughly check appropriate regulations, such as produced by the Norwegian Government, to confirm that the ship is both suitable and safe to carry such commodities.

Bulk Ferro Silicon Stowage Factor

  • Bulk Ferro-Silicon Stowage Factor 17/26


The stowage factor is a measure used in the shipping industry to express how much space (either in cubic meters or cubic feet) a ton of a particular cargo occupies in a ship’s hold. Stowage factors are used to assist in the planning and placement of cargo into a ship’s hold to optimize its capacity.

For bulk Ferro Silicon, the stowage factor can vary depending on its granularity and the specific conditions of its storage. Typically, bulk Ferro Silicon has a stowage factor in the range of 0.53 to 0.58 m³/tonne. However, it’s crucial to note that these are approximate figures and may vary based on the source of the Ferro Silicon, its granularity, moisture content, and packaging.

If you are involved in shipping or handling bulk Ferro Silicon, it’s essential to consult with specific suppliers or shipping experts for precise stowage factors. They might provide more accurate figures based on the particular conditions and characteristics of the Ferro Silicon in question.


Bulk Ferro Silicon Shipping

Ferro silicon (FeSi) is an alloy of iron and silicon, typically containing a silicon content of between 15% and 90% depending on the usage and application. It’s used as a deoxidizer in the production of steel and in the manufacturing of other ferrous and non-ferrous metals.

If you’re interested in the shipping or transportation of bulk Ferro Silicon, here’s an overview of what you should consider:

1. Packaging:

  • Jumbo Bags: One of the most common ways to ship Ferro Silicon is in 1-ton jumbo bags, which provide a balance between bulk shipping and the flexibility of smaller weight segments.
  • Bulk: For larger quantities, Ferro Silicon might be shipped in bulk without specific packaging, directly inside the ship’s hold or a container.
  • Drums: Smaller amounts can be shipped in metal or plastic drums.

2. Transportation Modes:

  • Sea Freight: This is the most common mode for international shipments. Ferro Silicon is usually shipped in bulk carriers or in containers.
  • Rail: Especially in regions like Europe or Russia, rail can be an efficient mode for transporting Ferro Silicon.
  • Road: Trucks are often used for shorter domestic deliveries or last-mile delivery.

3. Safety and Handling:

  • Moisture Sensitivity: Ferro Silicon is sensitive to moisture. It’s essential to keep the product dry during shipping to prevent quality degradation.
  • Dust Control: Depending on the grade, FeSi can produce a lot of dust, which might require dust control measures during loading and unloading.

4.Regulatory Compliance:

Ensure that the shipment meets all regulations in both the exporting and importing countries. This can relate to safety, environmental concerns, and quality standards.

5. Documentation:

  • Bill of Lading: Required for sea shipments, this document acts as a receipt for the cargo and represents the contract between the consignor and the carrier.
  • Certificate of Analysis (CoA): Confirms the product’s quality and composition.
  • Packing List and Commercial Invoice: Essential for customs clearance.

6. Insurance:

Always consider insuring your cargo. The nature of Ferro Silicon doesn’t make it particularly high-risk, but it’s good practice to have insurance in place for any unexpected events.

7. Storage:

Upon arrival, ensure the storage facility is dry and well-ventilated. Moisture can degrade the quality of the product. Also, consider dust control measures in storage facilities.

When considering shipping Ferro Silicon, it’s essential to factor in all these points to ensure the product arrives at its destination in the best possible condition and without any regulatory hiccups.


Bulk Ferro Silicon Uses and Applications

Ferro silicon (FeSi) is an alloy of iron (Fe) and silicon (Si), and it’s available in various silicon contents. Depending on its silicon content, ferro silicon can be classified as low silicon or high silicon. It’s primarily used as a deoxidizing agent in the production of steel and as an alloying element to improve the physical properties of various metals.

Here are some of the primary uses and applications of bulk ferro silicon:

  1. Steel Manufacturing:
    • Deoxidizer: In the steel melting process, ferro silicon is added to remove oxygen from the steel. It reacts with oxygen to produce silicon dioxide (SiO2), which floats to the surface of the molten steel and is removed as slag.
    • Enhancing Mechanical Properties: Adding ferro silicon can improve the strength and magnetic properties of steel.
  2. Cast Iron Production:
    • Graphitizing Agent: Ferro silicon helps in the prevention of carbide formation during solidification.
    • Structural Control: Adjusting silicon content can aid in controlling the amount and morphology of graphite present in cast iron, influencing the mechanical properties of the final product.
  3. Magnesium Ferrosilicon: In ductile iron production, ferro silicon is combined with magnesium to produce nodular graphite, giving ductile iron its characteristic properties.
  4. Manufacturing Silicon: High-purity ferro silicon is used in the semiconductor industry to produce silicon.
  5. Electrode Coatings: Ferro silicon is used in the manufacturing of electrode coatings.
  6. Mineral and Metals Recovery: Due to its density, ferro silicon is sometimes used as a heavy medium in mineral processing to separate mineral-rich particles.
  7. Grain Refiners: When used in aluminum and other non-ferrous alloy production, ferro silicon can act as a grain refiner, influencing the crystal structure and improving the material’s mechanical properties.
  8. Welding: Ferro silicon is sometimes incorporated into welding rods or wires to ensure uniform silicon content in the weld pool.
  9. Inoculants: Ferro silicon is used as an inoculant in the production of both gray and ductile cast irons. It helps to control the type and distribution of graphite within the iron.
  10. Manufacturing of Silicones: Silicon derived from ferro silicon is used as a raw material in the production of silicones, which find applications in lubricants, sealants, adhesives, and more.

In addition to these uses, ferro silicon can also be found in specific niche applications due to its unique properties. The specific application often depends on the silicon content of the ferro silicon, its purity, and other alloying elements present.


Bulk Ferro Silicon Loading and Unloading

Ferro Silicon (FeSi) is an alloy of silicon and iron, widely used in the steel industry as a deoxidizer and to add silicon to the steel. Loading and unloading of bulk Ferro Silicon requires careful considerations due to its weight, potential dust emissions, and the potential risk of contamination.

Bulk Ferro Silicon Loading:

  1. Inspection Before Loading: Before loading, ensure that the transportation vehicle (truck, railcar, ship) is clean, dry, and free from any contaminants. This is to prevent contamination and product quality degradation.
  2. Use of Proper Equipment: Employ loading equipment suitable for heavy materials. Conveyors, loaders, or cranes can be used depending on the mode of transportation and the facility setup.
  3. Dust Emission Control: Due to the fine nature of some of the material, there can be dust emissions during loading. Use dust suppression methods such as water sprinklers or dust collector systems. Ensure that the loading area has good ventilation.
  4. Safety Protocols: Workers involved in loading should be provided with protective gear such as masks, gloves, safety shoes, and goggles. Also, ensure there’s an emergency response plan in place.
  5. Load Optimization: Distribute the weight evenly in the transportation vehicle to avoid overloading and uneven weight distribution which can cause transportation issues.

Bulk Ferro Silicon Unloading:

  1. Inspection Before Unloading: Before unloading, ensure the product hasn’t shifted during transit and there’s no visible contamination.
  2. Unloading Equipment: Use suitable heavy-duty equipment like bulldozers, excavators, or cranes for unloading. Ensure equipment is clean to avoid contamination.
  3. Dust Emission Control: As with loading, there’s potential for dust emission during unloading. Implement dust control measures, and ensure the area has sufficient ventilation.
  4. Safety Protocols: Safety remains paramount. Ensure workers are protected, and an emergency response plan is ready for any contingencies.
  5. Storage Consideration: Once unloaded, the Ferro Silicon should be stored in a dry and clean area to maintain its quality. If it’s stored outside, ensure it’s covered to protect from rain and other environmental factors.
  6. Documentation: Always maintain a proper record of loaded and unloaded materials. This helps in inventory management and in case of any discrepancies or quality issues.

Lastly, always ensure compliance with local regulations and standards during both loading and unloading processes. Regular training sessions and audits can help maintain safety and efficiency standards.


Top Ferro Silicon Exporting Countries

Ferro silicon (FeSi) is a ferroalloy — an alloy of iron and silicon — that contains varying ratios of elemental silicon and iron. It is used in steelmaking and foundries as a source of silicon and for deoxidation of molten steels. The production and export of ferro silicon are closely tied to the steel industry. Currently, the top ferro silicon exporting countries were:

  1. China: China has been the leading producer and exporter of ferro silicon for many years. The country has vast resources, low-cost labor, and significant steel production capabilities, which together make it a major player in the ferro silicon market.
  2. Russia: Russia’s abundant energy resources, combined with its large metallurgical industry, position it as one of the top exporters of ferro silicon.
  3. Norway: The country benefits from its rich hydropower resources, which offer a competitive edge in terms of energy costs. This gives Norway an advantage in producing energy-intensive products like ferro silicon.
  4. India: The growth of the Indian steel industry has been mirrored by the growth of its ferro alloy sector. India has been steadily increasing its ferro silicon production capacity and its export potential.
  5. Brazil: Brazil, with its vast mineral resources and growing steel industry, has also been a key player in the ferro silicon market.
  6. South Africa: The country possesses rich chromite ore deposits and has been a significant player in the production of various ferroalloys, including ferro silicon.
  7. Kazakhstan: Rich in mineral resources, Kazakhstan has been an emerging player in the ferroalloy market.
  8. Bhutan: Although a smaller player compared to the others, Bhutan has increased its production of ferro silicon due to the availability of cheap hydropower and proximity to the Indian market.
  9. Ukraine: With a historically strong metallurgical industry, Ukraine has been a consistent producer and exporter of various ferroalloys, including ferro silicon.
  10. Venezuela: Despite political and economic challenges, Venezuela has mineral resources that support the production of ferroalloys.

It’s worth noting that the global market is dynamic, and the ranking of top exporters might change based on geopolitical situations, trade policies, raw material availability, technological advancements, and market demands.