Palm Kernels: When crushed the fruits (kernels) of various varieties of palm trees provide palm oil (or fat) used to make soaps, candles, etc. This crushing process may take place where the plants are grown and the resulting oils shipped in specialised parcel tankers leaving the remaining expellers to be transported in bulk in dry cargo vessels. Like so many tropical plant products, palm kernels are
liable to heat and to sweat, are prone to mildew and are readily flammable.
Licorice: A Mediterranean root grown also in the Near East and containing a sweet juice, which when extracted forms a brittle, black substance used medicinally and in confectionery. Carried in bags or bales which become moldy if wetted.
Manioc: A tropical plant from which cassava and tapioca are prepared. An edible, bulbous plant with a pungent odour which should therefore be stowed away from other goods liable to taint; requiring good ventilation. Grown worldwide and shipped usually in bags or on pallets.
Poonac: Also known as Brunack, the cake left after extracting oils from coconut pulp, and used as cattle fodder. Like most expellers, is liable to spontaneous combustion. Exported from Sri Lanka.
Potatoes: An edible tuber widely grown for food, being shipped in a variety of ways – in barrels; bags; cases; palletised; and in bulk, largely from the Mediterranean or nearby areas, eg: Cyprus, Egypt, Spain and the Canary Islands. Good ventilation is essential at all times and hold temperatures are best kept below 34 degrees Centigrade, so refrigerated ships are useful in this trade. However providing the carrying vessel has an efficient ventilation system with the facility of regularly changing the air flow, and providing proper air-conduits are constructed throughout the cargo compartments where necessary, refrigeration is not essential. Loss of cargo weight during carriage can be considerable.
Rubber: The coagulated sap of certain tropical trees used in a whole variety of manufacturing processes and finished articles. Shipped mainly from South East Asia in bales (nowadays wrapped in polythene sheets) the stowage factor of which varies according to the density of packing. Rubber must be loaded and stowed dry and cool, (to avoid mildew) in clean, oil free holds, as certain oils will dissolve this commodity.
- Palm Kernels Bulk Stowage Factor 60/65
- Palm Kernels Bagged Stowage Factor 70/75
- Licorice Root Bagged Stowage Factor 130/140
- Licorice Root Baled Stowage Factor 85
- Manioc Bagged Stowage Factor 60/62
- Poonac Bagged Stowage Factor 80
- Rubber Baled Stowage Factor 65/70