Reversible laydays/right to average laydays: Normally, demurrage and dispatch are calculated separately for loading and discharging. However, the charter party may include other terms on a case by case basis as agreed by the parties. For instance, it may be that the charterers are given the option to treat the lay time periods as reversible. Under this arrangement, the laydays allowed for loading and discharging are added together, and the time used for loading may then be deducted, with the remaining time being available for discharging. If all the laytime is used for loading, the ship comes on demurrage on arrival at the discharging port and the time will then count immediately. Where the charterers are given the option to average the laydays, the loading and discharging are drawn up separately. The resultant demurrage and dispatch are then added or set off against each other and calculated on the result. Safe ports: It is usual for the charter party to provide that the ship shall go to a safe port nominated or ordered by the charterers. The characteristics of a safe port are that it must be reasonably safe for the vessel to enter, to remain, and to depart without suffering any damage so long as she is well and carefully handled. Reasonably safe, that is, in its geographi- cal configuration on the coast or waterway and in the equipment and aids available for her movement and stay. In short, it must be safe in its set up as a port. (per Lord Denning M. R. in The Evia [no. 2] 1982) The port must be physically, meteorologically, and politically safe. A temporary danger will not render the port unsafe, unless the dan- ger continues for a period that, given the nature of the adventure, will involve undue delay. The port to which a ship is ordered must be safe for that particular ship on that particular occasion-it is irrelevant that other ships have safely used the port previously. Safe berth: If the ship is ordered to proceed to one safe berth, the same parameters that apply to the case of the “safe port” stand.